Saturday, May 23, 2020

Countering Human Trafficking - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 597 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/05/07 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Human Trafficking Essay Did you like this example? Human trafficking is a way people use other humans for money, drugs and pleasure, these people who traffick young people manipulate and and lie to them to make them think that what they are doing is right. People struggle everyday fighting for their lives, everyday is different a whole new battle for them they wake up not free to their own life. Many have been killed and left to be found trying to leave, once youre in youre in and its hard to get out. Due to their horrific experiences, victims of human trafficking often find themselves dependent on an antisocial lifestyle. This tells us that theres multiple side effects of this terrible thing. This is one of them, people who have been in or are in human trafficking are already scared for their life to tell people about it for the fear of not getting help and getting killed for speaking out( Mohr 22). People are so anxious to get out of human trafficking that they commit crimes just to be found and to be placed in a safe en vironment. But in prison you can still get recruited to a trafficker outside because theres girls in prison still working for outside traffickers and they will threaten them into going back into trafficking(Mohr 23). Girls will steal and transport drugs for their leader in turn of not getting raped. People have worked hard to put up organizations to help these people lost in human trafficking to show them that people are there for them and care for them. They have special ways they can notice if someone comes in and they are a human traffick victim. patients sometimes had bruises, were regularly intoxicated, came in repeatedly for sexualy transmitted infections or were angry or shut down(gaven1). They know how to take desperate measures to make these young people that are caught up in human trafficking and to save them from the fear and anger built up from human trafficking. Most of the victims in human trafficking start at an early age and continue on until either they are k illed in the trafficking or get out, but rarely does anyone get out safely(Morh 22). Its hard to treat trafficked victims because theres no specific thing that can tell you if they are being sexually sold. Doctors have a hard time with treating victims because of these reasons. People who are victims are everywhere around us and we dont even realize it. trafficking victims live across the U.S.and all to often are hidden in plain sight: at grocery stores and move theatres, or visiting dentists or doctors offices(gaven2). Doctors should treat victims with care and tenderness and treat them the same they would treat any sexually abused person. But doing that is really hard because you can never tell the difference between someone who is in traffick and someone who is not. The National Human Trafficking Hotline, tallied 8,759 cases and 10,615 individual victims of human trafficking last year. The majority of victims were female, of the adult age and trafficked for sex(gaven 2). Most victims are females many start out at a teenager and end up spending most of their life being trafficked. Though many victims are females there are some that are males. Through the hardships and abuse for however long its hard for victims to talk about what they have gone through. Many have been asked to represent in court to testify what theyve been through but many are to scared and afraid but some end up testifying and putting their past at ease(gaven 2). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Countering Human Trafficking" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Stand by Me Cmm Theory Free Essays

1. Describe the development of Self Concept of Gordie’s character in the film. How is it different from Chris’? The film showcased Gordie’s thoughts and growth with his friends. We will write a custom essay sample on Stand by Me Cmm Theory or any similar topic only for you Order Now From his exterior of a young lad, wimpy and afraid, he had managed to mature in to an independent and confident individual. In the beginning of the film, he had been described, by himself, as a weird guy, since he wasn’t like his late brother, who was the favorite. He loved writing and was good at it, but the unfortunate reality he was in was comparison from his parents, who would rather have a popular kid with ‘normal’ friends later, made him diss his own passion. And this practice developed and later on gave him enough fright to accept his invisibility. His coward-ness of going against his father permanently shuts his mouth and just listen with what his parents had to say. However, Chris, a kid from a bad family, is a hopeful lawyer. But since everyone sees him as a juvenile, he never bothered to live his dream. His tough spirit and leadership skills lead the gang gave them courage. I think he’s influential like that, though he knows for himself he wouldn’t turn out good; he has good intention for his friends. Like how Gordie described him as a peacemaker of the gang. Chris is like the gang’s guardian. He always makes sure they’re okay and take care of them unlike how his alcoholic father. Nevertheless, the self-fulfilling prophecy of the two later on changed when Chris and Gordie changed after they found the body. Chris became a lawyer, though hard to get in with his status and Gordie became a writer, much to his joy that he took it. When they changed their views of themselves and how they acted, people had changed also with how they viewed them. 2. Choose any one of the characters and by citing specific scenes and dialogues from the film discuss how this character exhibited the Self-fulfilling Prophecy. Chris’ side: Gordie: Maybe you could go into the College-courses with me. Chris: That’ll be the day. Gordie: Why not you’re smart enough. Chris: They won’t let me. Gordie: What d’you mean? Chris: It’s the way people think of my family in this town. It’s the way they think of me. Just one of those lowlife Chambers-kids. Gordie: That’s not true. Chris: Oh it is. No one even asked me if I took the milkmoney that time. I just got a three-day vacation. Gordie: Did you take it? Chris: Yeah I took it. You knew I took it. Teddy knew I took it. Everyone knew I took it. Even Vern knew it I think. Maybe I was sorry and I tried to give it back. Gordie: Tried to give it back? Chris: Maybe, just maybe. And maybe I took it to Old Lady Simons and told her. And the money was all there. But I still got a three-day vacation because it never showed up. And maybe the next week Old lady Simons had that brand new skirt on when she came to school. Gordie: Yeah, yeah. It was brown and had dots on it! Chris: Yeah. So let’s just say that I stole the milk money but Old Lady Simons stole it back from me. Just suppose that I told the story. Me, Chris Chambers, kid brother of the Eyeball Chambers. You think that anybody would have believed it? Gordie: No. Chris: And d’you think that that bitch would have dared try something like that if it would have been one of those dootch bags from up on The View if they had taken the money? Gordie: No way! Chris: Oh no! But with me! I’m sure she had her eyes on that skirt for a long time. Anyway she saw her chance and she took it. I was the tupid one for even trying to give it back. I never thought – I never thought that a teacher– Oh who gives a fuck anyway? I just wish I could go to some place where nobody knows me. I guess I’m just a pussy, Gordie. Gordie: No way, no way. I think it was pretty brave of him to say what he has to say, but share his dream with his best friend and giving him his trust, is ve ry admirable. This dialogue further defined his thoughts and how he had accepted his fate as a delinquent. Everyone saw him as a low life and never bothered to hear his side because he was Chris Chambers, a son of an alcoholic drug addict, so he ever bothered to argue no more. But on the last line, he said â€Å"I just wish I could go to some place where nobody knows me† this simple phrase is also another way of saying â€Å"I wish nobody would judge me with my family. They don’t know the real me† 3. Choose any two(2) of the IC Theories we covered in class and discuss how each was made evident in the film. Social Penetration Theory: Gordie: Why did he have to die, Chris? Why did Denny have to die? Why? Chris: I don’t know. Gordie: It should have been me. Chris: Don’t say that. Gordie: It should have been me. Chris: Don’t say that, man. Gordie: I’m no good. My dad said it, I’m no good. Chris: He doesn’t know you. Gordie: He hates me. Chris: He doesn’t hate you. Gordie: He hates me. Chris: No, he just doesn’t know you. Gordie: He hates me. My dad hates me. He hates me oh oh God. Chris: You gonna be a great writer someday, Gordie. You might even write about us guys if you ever get hard up for material. Gordie: Guess I’d have to be really hard up, huh? Chris: Yeah. The moment when they had reached their goal, everything had hit Gordie like a cake thrown on the face. He mumbles his inner thoughts, agreeing to his uselessness to the family, completely in tragic horror about his brother’s death should have been his. This kind of talks only happens in intimate relationships shared, like Chris and Gordie’s relationship, which was built through the whole adventure or quest to find the missing body. Constructivism: As time went on we saw less and less of Teddy and Vern until eventually they became just two more faces in the halls. That happens sometimes. Friends come in and out of your life like busboys in a restaurant. I heard that Vern got married out of High-school, had four kids and is now the forklift operator at the Arsenal Lumberyard. Teddy tried several times to get into the Army but his eyes and his ear kept him out. The last I heard, he’d spent some time in jail. He was now doing odd jobs around Castle Rock. Chris did get out. He enrolled in the College-courses with me. And although it was hard he gutted it out like he always did. He went on to College and eventually became a lawyer. Last week he entered a fast food restaurant. Just ahead of him, two men got into an argument. One of them pulled a knife. Chris who would always make the best peace tried to break it up. He was stabbed in the throat. He died almost instantly. The writer or Gordie, now a father and a writer, reflects over what happened to them when they were twelve. His perspective of what happened was unforgettable and had imprinted on his life. Like what Chris said â€Å"You might even write about us guys if you ever hard up for material† and he did, he wrote their experience and described how each one of them had grown and how he could never forget their friendship. Because only through experience you learn how things are made and how you mature. How to cite Stand by Me Cmm Theory, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Diagnostic Study of Accounting and Auditing Practices free essay sample

These include the regulatory and organizational framework, accounting bases and accounting information systems. 3 – Financial Reporting – describes financial reporting and disclosure requirements. 4 – Quality of Financial Reporting – reviews evidence regarding compliance with disclosure requirements and the quality of Philippine financial reporting. Part Two: Auditing 5 – Governing Laws and Regulations – describes the laws that govern Philippine auditing practices and audit requirements. 6 – Philippine Auditing Practices – examines Philippine auditing practices by comparing these to regional norms and international best practices. – Public Accounting and Auditing Firms – describes the presence of domestic and international accounting firms in the Philippines. 8 – Issue Synopsis: Accounting and Auditing – summarizes the issues identified in this chapter. 29 DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING P RACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES Part One. Accounting 1. Introduction26 Philippine accounting practices date back to the pre-Spanish period, when Filipinos conducted business with Chinese, Indians and Malays from neighboring countries. These trading activities forced Filipinos to prepare crude accounting records that were based mainly on cash receipts and payments. The Philippines has, for a significant part of its recent history, been exposed to many foreign cultures and influences. The Spanish brought substantial changes to language and religion. The first accounting firms were established by the British in the 1700s. However, the comparatively short American colonial period was the most significant in influencing the Philippines’ major institutions—including the educational system and the formalization of the professions. A number of American businesses established themselves in the Philippines during the 1920s and 1930s. Their activities and requirements influenced the establishment and initial growth period of the public accounting profession. During this time, the passage of the Accountancy Act 1923 created the Board of Accountancy (BOA) and gave it the authority to issue Certified Public Accountant (CPA) certificates. Six years later, the Philippine Institute of Certified Public Accountants (PICPA) was established within the private sector to represent professional interests. Many of the larger Philippine companies were subsidiaries or branches of American companies—their accounting reflected US practices. Even after independence, the US maintained close links with the Philippines through trade and investment. These links strongly influenced public and private sector accounting regulation and practices. Until the mid-1990s, private sector accounting standards replicated those of the US (Although PICPA issued pronouncements to cover issues not covered by the US standards—for instance, â€Å"Revaluation of Fixed Assets†). Likewise, the Philippine accounting and auditing regulatory framework is similar to the US framework. It includes both governmental and a supervised form of self-regulation. 6 Much of the information in this introduction is sourced from the following excellent article: Agustin, Emelita, P. December 1994. The Accountancy Profession in the Philippines and the Philippine Institute of Certified Public Accountants (PICPA). Accountants’ Journal. Vol. 44(3). pp. 12-17. 30 ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING IN THE PHILIPPINES The Accountancy Act 1967, which replaced t he Accountancy Act 1923, governed the standardization of accounting education, stipulated the examination process for CPA registration, and regulated the practice of accountancy. The Act allowed only Philippine citizens, and citizens of foreign countries extending similar privileges to Philippine citizens with respect to the practice of accountancy, to take the CPA exam and to practice accountancy. The Revised Accountancy Act 1975, which replaced the Accountancy Act 1967, remains in force and is the key piece of legislation that governs accounting and auditing arrangements. Philippine accounting and auditing moved away from US influences towards international practices in the 1990s. For instance, International Accounting Standards (IASs) became the basis for Philippine accounting standards in 1996. In the wake of the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis, much attention has focused on accounting and auditing arrangements. While the Philippines weathered the crisis better than many of its neighbors, foreign direct investment (FDI) levels have fallen substantially in the past 3 years—the world economic slowdown is reinforcing this trend. Among a menu of options to make the Philippines a more attractive destination for FDI, one of the more effective choices is to adopt best-practice accounting and auditing standards, and to ensure that these standards are rigorously monitored and enforced. . The â€Å"Philippine Accounting System† The Philippine accounting system is strongly influenced by US and, more recently, international practices. The governing legislative and institutional framework is comprehensive—the components of a developed and robust framework are readily identifiable. In common with the US model, these arrangements reflect a mixture of government interve ntion and self-regulation. Legislative and Institutional Framework Figure 2 depicts the legislative and institutional framework that governs Philippine accounting and auditing arrangements. The four key legislative planks are the Revised Accountancy Law 1975, the Corporation Code, the Revised Securities Act 2000, and the National Internal Revenue Code 1999. The Revised Accountancy Law 1975 (Presidential Decree No. 692) replaced the Accountancy Act 1967. As with the earlier law, it governs the standardization of accounting education, stipulates the examination process for CPA registration and regulates the practice of accountancy. It remains in place today. The Revised Accountancy Law 1975 prescribes the 31 DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES control and regulation over the registration of CPAs as well as accountancy practices more generally. The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), through the Board of Accountancy (BOA), administers the provisions of this law. The Profession, through the Philippine Institute of Certified Public Accountants (PICPA), exercises regulatory duties relating to technical matters and work quality. However, the BOA must approve standards issued by the Profession before they are implemented. Figure 2: Philippine Legislative and Institutional Framework Governing Laws and Regulations Revised Securities Act (RSA) National Internal Revenue Code (NIRC) Corporate Code Accountancy Law Institutions and Primary Functions Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Implements provisions of the RSA and Corporate Code covering: †¢ Form and content of financial statements †¢ Definition of accounting terms, and †¢ Accounting rules and regulations. Accounting Standards Council (ASC) †¢ Promulgates accounting standards Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) †¢ Board of Accountancy (BOA) Grants accounting licences Approves accounting and auditing standards Regulates accountancy profession Determines and prescribes admission requirements for CPAs (BOA) Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) Bureau of Customs †¢ Interpret and enforce the NIRC and the Tax and Customs Code †¢ Approve changes in corporate accounting policies and methods †¢ Require filing of audited financial statements Auditing Standards and Practices Council (ASPC) †¢ Promulgates auditing standards Philippine Institute of Certified Public Accountants (PICPA) †¢ Selects and designates the members of the ASC †¢ Oversees continuing professional education (CPE) for Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) †¢ Enforces Code of Ethics (with BOA) †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ The Corporation Code, which is enforced by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), governs the creation and operations of limited liability corporations. Unless companies are classified as closed corporations—those with 20 or fewer shareholders—they are obliged to abide by all the reporting and other requirements of a limited liability corporation. Among other things, they must submit audited financial statements to the SEC and the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR). However, companies in special industries, such as banks, insurance companies, and public utilities, fall under the control of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP), the Insurance Commission, the Board of Transportation, or other governmental organizations. Companies listed on the Philippine Stock Exchange must submit financial statements to the SEC in accordance with the Revised Securities Act 2000. The Act also makes the SEC responsible for overseeing 32 ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING IN THE PHILIPPINES financial reporting requirements. In this respect, SEC rules and guidelines specify the form and contents of financial statements. The National Internal Revenue Code 1999 requires all corporations, partnerships and persons that file income tax returns to prepare and submit financial statements. It also requires that tax agents, including CPAs, be accredited by the BIR. Accounting Bases Financial statements for business organizations must be prepared using the accrual accounting basis. This requirement is specified in Statement of Financial Accounting Standard (SFAS) 1: Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements. Accounting Information Systems Accounting information systems range from complex enterprise resource planning systems to paper-based manual systems. As might be expected, given the strength of the national software industry, a variety of low-range to mid-range Philippine-developed software packages are used for budgeting and accounting. 3. Financial Reporting and Disclosure Requirements Financial reporting regulations and disclosure requirements are governed by both mandatory and advisory sources. Mandatory sources include (i) the legal requirements in the National Internal Revenue Code— including maintenance of accounting records, content of financial statements, and the audit of companies incorporated in the Philippines; (ii) Statements of Financial Accounting Standards (SFASs) issued by the Accounting Standards Council (ASC); and (iii) rules and regulations issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) governing the form and content of financial statements. Most accounting principles are adopted from IAS and US FASB statements. Where issues are not addressed by an SFAS, practices and pronouncements of IASC or FASB should be referred to. 27 The Central Bank of the Philippines (up to 2 July 1993) and the BSP (from 3 July 1993) issued the Manuals of Regulations which specified the implementing regulations for the Central Bank laws (old and new), the General Banking Act, and the specialized banking laws for thrift banks, rural banks, the Development Bank of the Philippines, the Land 27 Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. 1999. An International Accounting Comparison: Focus on Asia Pacific. Volume I. pp. 28-29. 33 DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES Bank of the Philippines, and nonbank financial intermediaries performing quasi-banking functions (NBQBs). The BSP has recently reissued the Manuals of Regulation in two volumes: one for nonbanks (May 1999)28 and one for banks (31 January 2000). A Manual of Accounts, containing a uniform chart of accounts for each type of bank and NBQB, complements the Manuals of Regulation. Statutory financial statements include the Balance Sheet, Income Statement and Cash Flow Statement together with notes to the financial statements. Moreover, rules require the disclosure of all matters that might affect an investor’s decision to buy or sell a company’s securities. All companies with quarterly sales exceeding P100,000 (about $2,000) must have their financial statements audited and signed by a CPA. 29 SEC rules require listed companies to file quarterly reports within 45 days of the quarter-end. Corporations whose securities are listed at the exchange must prepare their financial statements according to the accounting standards promulgated by the ASC. Annual financial statements must be submitted to the SEC within 105 days of their fiscal year-end, which for most companies falls on 31 December. Audits are usually completed by midFebruary of the following year, although in some cases this is extended to mid-March. However, annual reports are not distributed to shareholders until the middle of April when most shareholder meetings are held. Most annual reports are prepared in English for national and international distribution. The extent to which annual reports are made available to investors and financial analysts varies. Large corporations usually have a department responsible for investor relations and are willing to provide information. In any case, the financial statements of Philippine taxpaying companies are available from the SEC. Companies listed at the Philippine Stock Exchange are also required to file semi-annual financial statements with the SEC within 60 days following the end of the first half of the fiscal year. A few large corporations also prepare quarterly financial statements. 28 29 BSP. Circular 204. World Bank. 1999. Philippines: The Challenge of Economic Recovery. World Bank: Washington D. C. pp. 35-36. 34 ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING IN THE PHILIPPINES 4. Quality of Financial Reporting Assessments of financial reporting quality vary. On one hand, a World Bank review of Philippine financial reporting practices favorably concluded that: â€Å"†¦according to users of financial statements—including banks and investment banks—accounting and disclosure regulations and standards in the Philippines compare favorably with those in many Asian countries. But the same users report that enforcement by regulators is weak and that auditors seldom issue caveats that might raise questions about the reliability of the information contained in client financial statements. In addition, there is no tradition of legal actions by investors and lenders against company officers or auditors in connection with cases of deficient or misleading financial reporting. Hence, the true financial state of companies may not be known sufficiently in advance to arrest a potentially serious deterioration in performance. † 30 Moreover, 19 of the 28 respondents (68 %) to a recent World Bank survey, rated the reliability of Philippine corporate financial statements as either good or excellent. These results were investigated though follow-up interviews. Those who rated financial statements as good or excellent qualified their responses by stating that they considered financial statements as being excellent or good from the reliability viewpoint if a Big Five firm had audited them. Those who gave ratings of fair or poor stated that they had given the rating for statements that had been audited by smaller firms. 1 Other studies present a less positive assessment. First, Euromoney magazine canvassed the views of global investors regarding the perceived quality of financial accounting systems in developing capital markets. The results of the study for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), excluding Singapore, are presented in Figure 3; quality is rated from 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest). 32 30 31 32 World Bank. 1999. Philippines: The Challenge of Economic Recovery. World Bank: Washington D. C. pp. 35-36. World Bank. 2001 September. The Philippine Accounting and Auditing Environment: A Critical Review of Institutions, Rules and Practices. Draft Report. Reported in Saudagaran, Ahahrokh, M. and Joselito G. Diga. 2000. The Institutional Environment of Financial Reporting Regulation in ASEAN. International Journal of Accounting. Vol 35(1). pp. 1-26. 35 DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES Figure 3: Perceived Quality of Financial Accounting Systems 10 Quality of Financial Accounting Systems 9 8 7 6 5 4 Malaysia Thailand Philippines Indonesia Second, a survey of the annual reports of 16 listed Philippine holding companies found that 75 % of these companies did not present summarized information regarding the financial position of significant subsidiaries in 1997. 33 Furthermore, 87. % of the holding companies surveyed did not disclose summarized information regarding the results of operations and the financial position of affiliates. The compliance rate improved in the case of related party transactions—only one of the 16 companies did not disclose the amounts involved. As regards disclosure of long-term debt of subsidiaries, 44 % of the sample did not report the separate liabilities of the parent and of its subsidiaries. 34 The low compliance with financial reporting rules and regulations, especially as regards disclosure of summarized information for significant subsidiaries or significant affiliates, indicates a weak-monitoring system. This issue was raised in an earlier study of the financial reporting practices of Philippine firms. 35 3 34 35 A total of 46 annual reports were surveyed from 1995 to 1997. All financial reports, except one, were given unqualified audit opinions. Cayanan, Arthur S. 1999. Debugging Holding Company Reports. The Development Center for Finance: Technical Notes. April. Vol 1(1). pp. 1-2. Cayanan, Arthur S. and H. Valderrama. 1998. Assessment of the Financial Reporting Practice s of Philippine Listed Firms. The Philippine Management Review. 36 ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING IN THE PHILIPPINES Part Two. Auditing 5. Governing Laws and Regulations The Revised Accountancy Law 1975 regulates the auditing profession—only CPAs are allowed to conduct statutory audits. The following laws and regulations determine audit requirements: †¢ Sections 75 and 141 of the Corporation Code require corporations with paid-up capital of P50,000 and above to submit audited annual financial statements to shareholders and to the SEC. †¢ The National Internal Revenue Code (NIRC) requires corporations, partnerships and persons with gross quarterly earnings of more than P150,000 to file audited financial statements with their tax returns. 6. Philippine Auditing Practices Statements of Auditing Standards of the Philippines (SASPs) govern auditing practices and are issued by the Auditing Standards and Practices Council (ASPC). These standards, and the role of the ASPC, are described in Chapter IV (Accounting and Auditing Standards). A recent Government publication identified concerns over weaknesses in corporate governance and auditing practices: â€Å"The pervading irregularities in corporate practice include reckless lending by commercial banks, risky investment by managers, limited recourse to equity finance, connected lending, insider trading, expropriation and misuse of company funds by directors, managers or large shareholders, shady business deals, poor audits, and highly concentrated corporate ownership. †36 An ADB study echoed these concerns: â€Å"†¦ there are many cases of poor financial reporting by large companies. Many small- and medium-sized businesses did not have quality financial statements. Publicly available financial information was often of low quality, arguably, because of the highly concentrated ownership of Philippine corporations, as large shareholders had no need for financial statements to monitor their companies and management that were under their own control. Even for widely-held public companies, the 36 Government of the Philippines. June 2000. A Snapshot of Philippine Governance: Status, Programs and Guidelines. p. 8. 37 DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES authorities, namely SEC and PICPA, sometimes did not penalize independent auditors for poorly prepared audited financial statements. † 37 The following subsections use comparative regional analyses to identify and examine Philippine auditing practices regarding auditor appointment and dismissal, auditor independence, auditor reporting requirements, and auditor liability. Auditor Appointment and Dismissal Section 13 of the IFAC Code of Ethics (1996) outlines procedures for communicating between incoming and outgoing auditors. Moreover, ISA 315 states the requirements for communications between predecessor and successor auditors when a change of auditors occurs. It places the initiative for communication with the successor auditor who is required to make specific inquiry, after obtaining permission from the prospective client, of the predecessor auditor as to such matters as management integrity, management disagreements, and the reason for change in auditor. While Philippine Exposure Draft (ED) 19 is consistent with ISA 315, Rule 301 of PICPA’s Code of Professional Conduct precludes an auditor from disclosing confidential information without the client’s permission— this limits the effectiveness of this requirement. 38 37 38 Saldana, Cesar, G. 2001. The Philippines. In Zhuang, Juzhong, David Edwards and Ma. Virginita Capulong (Eds), Corporate Governance and Finance in East Asia: A Study of Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand (Volume Two). Manila: ADB. pp. 192-193. Danlag, Ricardo Y. November 1999. Communication between Successor and Processor Auditor. Accounting Times. Vol 51(4). pp. 12-13. 38 ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING IN THE PHILIPPINES Table 3: Auditor Appointment and Dismissal39 Factor Nominating party Appointing party Party approving appointment Philippines Management/ Directors Management/ Directors Board of Directors, shareholders, or both depending on the company’s bylaws with approval of BSP for commercial banks ED 19 is consistent with ISA 315, however, this is effectively negated by other rules (see above). Letter filed with SEC stating nature of disagreement(s), for public companies None Singapore Shareholders Shareholders Shareholders and the Monetary Authority of Singapore for financial institutions Required before engagement is accepted Representation to shareholders in writing or personally, and filed with the Registrar of Companies Fees owing to outgoing auditor must be paid before incoming auditor can accept the engagement Communication between outgoing and incoming auditors Auditors’ rights to defend position on dismissal or resignation Compensation on termination Auditor Independence The IFAC Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants (1996) states that accountants in public practice should be, and should appear to be, free of any interest that might be regarded as being incompatible with integrity, objectivity, and independence. 40 ISA 220 and the Statement of Policy by the IFAC Council (1992) support periodic peer reviews. Furthermore, Section 8 of the IFAC Code of Ethics specifically relates to the objectivity of auditors with respect to their clients. 39 40 Adapted from: Favere-Marchesi, Michael. 2000. Audit Quality in ASEAN. The International Journal of Accounting. Vol 35(1). pp. 121-149. International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). 1996. Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants. 39 DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES Table 4: Auditor Independence41 Factor Restrictions on relationships: personal, commercial, financial, or influential Restrictions on services provided by audit firm to audit client (other than conduct of audit) Rules to avoid low balling Rotation of audit partners required Safeguards to Objectivity: †¢ Challenges to objectivity disclosed †¢ Quality reviews by peer audit firms †¢ Internal quality reviews †¢ †¢ Potential threats to objectivity monitored by third party Audit committees required Philippines Limits on personal, commercial, financial or influential relationships (Sec. 16 of Code of Ethics) None Singapore Some restriction on financial relationships No No No No Required by SASP 8 (Control of Quality of Audit Work) No No Accounting, tax advice, consulting, financial and investment advice, corporate recovery Yes Every 5 years for listed companies Yes Yes No Yes Yes Auditor Reporting Requirements In 1949, the Committee on Auditing Standards and Procedures of the Philippine Institute of Accountants (now PICPA) suggested that the standard auditor report format of the American Institute of Accountants (now the AICPA), be adopted. The form of this standard two-paragraph report remained largely unchanged until 1994. A new three-paragraph report, similar to the US standard report, was required to be issued for all audit reports issued after 30 June 1994. 42 This audit report form is consistent with IFAC requirements (ISA 700). 41 42 Adapted from: Favere-Marchesi, Michael. 2000. Audit Quality in ASEAN. The International Journal of Accounting. Vol 35(1). pp. 121-149. Villamayor, Romulfo B. 1994 December. The New Auditor’s Standard Report. Accountants’ Journal. Vol. 44(3). pp. 46-49. 40 ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING IN THE PHILIPPINES Table 5: Audit Reporting43 Issue In Auditor’s Report: †¢ Fraud or irregularities †¢ Illegal acts †¢ Internal controls and systems †¢ Maintenance of proper records Reporting to Other Parties: †¢ Fraud or irregularities †¢ Illegal acts †¢ Internal controls and systems †¢ Maintenance of proper records Law requires standard forms of audit reports Law specifies matters to be included in reports Standard forms of audit reports established by professional bodies Qualified audit reports due to uncertainties Philippines No No No No Yes44 No Yes45 No Yes (for public companies) No Yes Yes46 Singapore Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Auditor Liability Exposing auditors to civil liability creates strong incentives to raise quality and maintain independence. There must however be a balance between providing this incentive and avoiding a decline in audit services due to excessive litigation costs. 47 43 44 45 46 47 Adapted from: Favere-Marchesi, Michael. 2000. Audit Quality in ASEAN. The International Journal of Accounting. Vol 35(1). pp. 121-149. Must be reported to management under Philippine Auditing Standards. Must be reported to management under Philippine Auditing Standards. Required if the disclosures of the mitigating factors including management plans for the going concern issue is inadequate under SASP 15 (para. 3). Palmrose, Zoe-Vonna. 1988. An Analysis of Auditor Litigation and Audit Service Quality. The Accounting Review. 63. pp. 55-73. 41 DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING PRACTICES IN THE PHILIPPINES Table 6: Auditor Liability48 Issue Professional Sanctions: †¢ Warning †¢ Reprimand †¢ Fine †¢ Temporary suspension †¢ Permanent exclusion Legal liability cap between contract parties Contractual liability cap between contract parties Legal liability caps between contract parties and third parties Philippines No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Singapore Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No In the Philippines, auditor liability can be limited to an amount not exceeding triple the amount of the transaction plus actual damages (Sec. 63. 1, Securities Regulation Code 2000: Republic Act No. 8799). 7. Public Accounting and Auditing Firms Professional firms are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)—the Board of Accountancy, through the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), has recently begun to review and license accountancy firms. Accountancy firms cannot be corporations and the Revised Accountancy Law 1975 requires that all partners of accountancy firms must be registered Philippine CPAs. All of the large international accountancy firms are represented in the Philippines. 8. Issue Synopsis: Accounting and Auditing Chapter VIII – Issues and Recommendations – identifies and describes constraints and proposes corrective actions.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Review of Another Bullshit Night in Suck City

Introduction The memoir, â€Å"Another Bullshit Night in Suck City†, by Nick Flynn can be aptly described as a tale of redemption, of finding one’s self and how despite the passage of time and the buildup of resentment family is still considered an essential aspect of one’s existence.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Review of Another Bullshit Night in Suck City specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When reading through the early chapters of the book I could not help but think that this work was a way in which the author was trying to develop a sense of closure with his past and with the departure of this father early on. An example of this particular point of view can be seen in the following passage: â€Å"Some part of me knew he would show up, that if I stood in one place long enough he would find me, like you’re taught to do when you’re lost. But they never taught us what to do i f both of you are lost, and you both end up in the same place, waiting.† (Flynn, 1 – 357). From this passage alone it can be seen that the author, in a way, was always waiting for his father to arrive. The sense of loss that is exuded by this passage is palpable and it is obvious that the author truly did miss his father while growing up. Upon further reading it can even be implied that the author in effect blames his father for all the misery that occurred to him. In that if he had only been there, if had tried his best to be a father instead of taking the easy way out then maybe things would have been different. Their family might have been happier and his mother would not have had a succession of failed relationships and drinking binges which lead to her inevitable depression and death. TAdvertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More hus, from a certain perspective it can be said that the memoir is a way in which the author showcases his â€Å"inner demons†, shows his vulnerability by hesitating to overcome them and in the end portrays how he come to terms with who he is, who his father is and what he should do with his life in order to move forward. The Author’s Inner Demon’s The following is a passage which I believe exemplifies the theme of the first few chapters of the memoir: â€Å"In my experience, whatever happens clings to us like barnacles on the hull of a ship, slowing us slightly, both uglifying and giving us texture. You can scrape all you want, you can, if you have money, hire someone else to scrape, but the barnacles will come back or at least leave a blemish on the steel.† (Flynn, 1 – 357) My interpretation of this particular passage is that the author is implying that all the misery, all the suffering and the plethora of unfortunate events that have occurred to him weighs him down to such an extent t hat they are the primary cause behind his drinking and rather dark outlook on life. It connects rather succinctly to the theme of his early life that was bereft of a father, lost his mother, was aimless, dark and dismal without a single ray of hope. The first few chapters of the novel show an individual that has experienced dark times and has let them affect him to such an extent that they have almost become a part of him. His loss, his anger and even the depression that pervades his every action have become so ingrained in his being that it is almost impossible to tell where the narrator starts and the misery begins. Though the author does not outright state through an emotional outbursts that he is miserable, he does imply such a characteristic through his description of events, the portrayal of the environment in which he finds himself in and the manner in which there seems to an aimlessness in his actions.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Review of Another Bullshit Night in Suck City specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This descent into aimless oblivion is best exemplified by the following passage which is an excerpt of a far longer bit of prose which elaborates on the drinking habits of the author: â€Å"The usual I say. Essence. Spirit. Medicine. A taste. I say top shelf. Straight up. A shot. A sip. A nip. I say another round. I say brace yourself. Lift a few. Hoist a few. Work the elbow. Bottoms up. Belly up. Set ‘em up. What’ll it be. Name your poison. I say same again. I say all around. I say my good man. I say my drinking buddy. † (Flynn, 1 – 357) From this excerpt and the chapter that it finds itself in, readers are shown the classic â€Å"descent into drunken stupor† that often times features characters who want to lose themselves into the very drinks they imbibe. The author in this particular instance shows how drinking for him is an escape, it is a way in which he overcomes his need for a relationship with the past which is strengthened by the reappearance of his father in his life. This passage is an expression of the inner demons which continue to haunt the author, pervade his existence and create the means by which he wallows in self-imposed emotional exile. From my own point of view, it is during the first few chapters that the author shows how vulnerable he is wherein through the interspaced elaborations on the conditions of the poor and homeless it can be seen that Flynn is an individual haunted by his past, who cannot move on and views the reappearance of his father as a reminder of all that could have been but was lost. Hesitation in Overcoming his Issues The following is the best example out of all the possible excerpts within the memoir that exemplifies the initial hesitance of the author in overcoming his past:Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More â€Å"Sometimes I’d see my father, walking past my building on his way to another nowhere. I could have given him a key, offered a piece of my floor. A futon. A bed. But I never did. If I let him inside I would become him, the line between us would blur, my own slow-motion car wreck would speed up.† (Flynn, 1 – 357) What can be derived from this passage is that despite the fact that Flynn could have helped his father, accepted him into his home and given him a place to sleep he refused to do so. While he states that he did not want to exacerbate his own descent into oblivion, the fact is that his refusal is more along the lines of what his father represents throughout the memoir. Based on my own personal perspective, I believe that his father in the early and middle parts of the memoir acted as a symbol of his accumulated problems in life. His father was a reminder of what he had lost, his misery, his depression at the present and what his future could possibly be should be allow himself to spiral out of control. By refusing to accept his father he was in effect symbolically refusing to overcome the various issues that plagued him throughout his life. His disdain over what his father hand become was to a certain extent a form of disassociation from him resolving his own issues. Through symbolically linking his father as the source of all his problems and by refusing to accept him, Flynn in effect showed that he was running away from his own problems just as his father had run away from his own responsibilities. Moving Forward Toward the end of the book readers are introduced to the following passage which showcases how the author has moved on from the issues which plagued him in the past. â€Å"That book somehow fell to me, the son, to write. My father’s uncredited, noncompliant ghostwriter. Not enough to be stuck with his body, to be stuck with his name, but to become his secretary, his handmaid, caught up in folly, a doomed proje ct, to write about a book that doesn’t, that didn’t ever, that may not even , exist†. (Flynn, 1 – 357) While the tone of the passage may seem negative, it is anything but that. From this passage alone it is implied that everything that has been written so far is dedicated to the author’s father in that the wonderful memoir he has written is in a way a collaborative work that spans the years. It is an expression of how the author has moved forward from anger, resentment, hatred and indifference to caring, accepting and truly loving his father once more. It portrays how he has overcome his inner demons, developed his own positive outlook on the world and has taken all the negative things that have happened to him into a learning experience that enables him to continue to move forward with his life. As I close this examination of the book I have to mention that though the memoir focused on several truly painful and heart rending moments of the authorâ €™s life, there was little in the way of emotional outpouring originating from the text. Instead of creating passages that were dripping with emotion, the author instead portrayed a variety of scenarios, instances and points of view that illicit emotional responses from readers instead of telling them of how he felt at the time. By doing so he created a method by which people derived intellectual value from the events and how they were depicted rather than the author stating over and over again on how depressed he was (Paramenter, 1). This style, I believe, was an intentional aspect of how the author chose to depict this story since for him this memoir is a form of closure and, as such, to wallow in self-depression through emotional writing goes against the inherent theme of closure which pervades this memoir. As such, the writing style which is seemingly like a person from the outside looking in is one that shows little emotional response however is intentional so as to show th at the author, through this memoir, has finally come to terms with all that has happened to him in the past and has moved on (SR, 1). Works Cited Flynn, Nick. Another Bullshit Night in Suck City: A Memoir . New York: W. W. Norton Company, 2010. 1-357. Print. Paramenter, Chad. â€Å"Nick Flynn and ‘The Ticking Is the Bomb’.† the Paris Review. the Paris Review, 2010. Web. SR. â€Å"Another Bullshit Night In Indiana: An Interview with Nick Flynn.† Sycamore  Review. Sycamore Review, 2006. Web. This essay on Review of Another Bullshit Night in Suck City was written and submitted by user Madelyn Miranda to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Free Essays on Cowboys Between 1870-1900

The years of the late 1800’s were a time of great expansion and growth for the U.S. The Central Pacific railroad moved east and the Union Pacific moved west through the plains. Joseph McCoy of Springfield, IL devised a plan to take cattle out of Texas and take them to western towns. From there, he would ship them by rail to packing factories in the East. After a long search, he found the town of Abilene, KS. He bought grassy land surrounding the town and built holding pens for the thousands of cattle. Thus began the Chisholm Trail and the origin of the â€Å"long drive.† Each long drive lasted about three months and was a transport of cattle held each year. There were four main cattle trails traveled by the cowboys. First, the Chisholm Trail ran from San Antonio, TX to Abilene, KS. The Sedalia Trail ran also from San Antonio on to Sedalia, MO. The Goodnight-Loving Trail ran from San Angelo, TX to Cheyenne, WY and the Western Trail from Bandera, TX to Dodge City, KS. The cowboys who made the long drive rode on horses from Mexico. Hernn Cortà ©s brought small horses in 1519 known as piebald pintos. The law in the West has been characterized as â€Å"5 cartridges in the cylinder and 1 in the chamber.† The Gold Rush of ’49 brought many people to the frontier, a few of whom became very rich and many more who were extremely poor. Some believed they could take advantage of the newly rich, which led to increased crime. Train robbers and wagon holdups were common. The only solution was to hire mercenaries to â€Å"clean up† some crime-ridden cities. Although lawmen were essential to keep the peace, the marshals, sheriffs and deputies were often as corrupt as the outlaws. Wyatt Earp was marshal of Tombstone, AZ, but was a former horse thief, an embezzler, and a gambler. When Earp worked in Dodge City, he met another not-so-good guy, Doc Holiday. Although Holiday was an alcoholic and a cold-hearted killer, he and Earp became good friends. Othe... Free Essays on Cowboys Between 1870-1900 Free Essays on Cowboys Between 1870-1900 The years of the late 1800’s were a time of great expansion and growth for the U.S. The Central Pacific railroad moved east and the Union Pacific moved west through the plains. Joseph McCoy of Springfield, IL devised a plan to take cattle out of Texas and take them to western towns. From there, he would ship them by rail to packing factories in the East. After a long search, he found the town of Abilene, KS. He bought grassy land surrounding the town and built holding pens for the thousands of cattle. Thus began the Chisholm Trail and the origin of the â€Å"long drive.† Each long drive lasted about three months and was a transport of cattle held each year. There were four main cattle trails traveled by the cowboys. First, the Chisholm Trail ran from San Antonio, TX to Abilene, KS. The Sedalia Trail ran also from San Antonio on to Sedalia, MO. The Goodnight-Loving Trail ran from San Angelo, TX to Cheyenne, WY and the Western Trail from Bandera, TX to Dodge City, KS. The cowboys who made the long drive rode on horses from Mexico. Hernn Cortà ©s brought small horses in 1519 known as piebald pintos. The law in the West has been characterized as â€Å"5 cartridges in the cylinder and 1 in the chamber.† The Gold Rush of ’49 brought many people to the frontier, a few of whom became very rich and many more who were extremely poor. Some believed they could take advantage of the newly rich, which led to increased crime. Train robbers and wagon holdups were common. The only solution was to hire mercenaries to â€Å"clean up† some crime-ridden cities. Although lawmen were essential to keep the peace, the marshals, sheriffs and deputies were often as corrupt as the outlaws. Wyatt Earp was marshal of Tombstone, AZ, but was a former horse thief, an embezzler, and a gambler. When Earp worked in Dodge City, he met another not-so-good guy, Doc Holiday. Although Holiday was an alcoholic and a cold-hearted killer, he and Earp became good friends. Othe...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Children with Parents Suffering from AIDS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Children with Parents Suffering from AIDS - Essay Example If the victim is a single parent mostly in females and there is no father around to help her things get even worse. If the drugs used by the mother are reason for her family to reject her than her relatives might not be willing to take the responsibility of her children. Moreover, the shame of the disease may cause families to keep the reason for the death of a parent as a secret and the children are isolated due to the disgrace. If they know the cause of the death they feel better not telling it to anyone even to their best friends and keeping it as a secret. The silence takes over them and as they are immature due to their age they might behave abnormally. When they find no way of taking out their anger or displaying grief they often start causing trouble in the school. Boys specially may start doing criminal activities. Some children or teenagers start to discriminate sex and drugs as though they are challenging the disease for what it did to their parents. This all can happen with children who have a parent that is dying due to aids or a parent who died because of aids. Children lose their confidence in themselves; the most inflicting thing on the brain of a child is facing such a harsh fact when he or she is in an age of adolescence. The children struggle to keep up with all their class fellows, they might start lacking behind in studies.